I am fascinated by the meanings of words and the relationships between them. How does the human brain integrate information like the color of carrot, the grip of hammer, the negative connotation of bruise? How do we learn that tree and grass are in the same category, but tree and broccoli are not? My long-term research plan is to investigate how very different sources of information (color; negativity) are stored in memory and used to organize words according to their similarity. My research has used behavioral, functional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) methods to investigate several research questions regarding semantic information in the brain.